What are "Fund performance Metrics"?

In this piece, you learn what "Fund performance Metrics" are. This article is part of a comprehensive series designed to help you navigate the VC world and its terms and concepts. Whether you're an entrepreneur seeking funding, a student learning about the industry or you’re thinking about becoming an investor, this series is your gateway to VC clarity.
January 29, 2024
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What are "Fund performance Metrics"?

"Fund Performance Metrics" refer to quantitative measures used to assess and evaluate the success and effectiveness of an investment fund, such as a venture capital (VC) fund or private equity fund. These metrics provide insights into the fund's financial health, investment strategy, and overall performance. Fund managers and investors use these metrics to make informed decisions, track progress, and compare the fund's performance against industry benchmarks. Here are some key fund performance metrics commonly used in the context of investment funds:

Internal Rate of Return (IRR):

  • Definition: IRR is a measure of the profitability of an investment and represents the annualized rate of return that makes the net present value of all cash flows (both positive and negative) from a particular investment equal to zero.
  • Significance: IRR is a widely used metric to assess the overall performance of a fund. It reflects the fund's ability to generate returns over time.

Multiple of Invested Capital (MOIC):

  • Definition: MOIC measures the total multiple of capital returned to investors compared to the initial amount of capital invested.
  • Significance: MOIC indicates how much money investors have received in relation to their initial investment. A MOIC greater than 1 indicates positive returns.

Distributions to Paid-in (DPI):

  • Definition: DPI is the ratio of cash distributions to limited partners to the total amount of capital contributed by limited partners.
  • Significance: DPI measures the fund's ability to return capital to investors and is an important metric for assessing the liquidity of a fund's investments.

Residual Value to Paid-in (RVPI):

  • Definition: RVPI represents the ratio of the current value of remaining portfolio investments to the total capital contributed by limited partners.
  • Significance: RVPI helps investors understand the potential future returns from the remaining investments in the fund's portfolio.

Total Value to Paid-in (TVPI):

  • Definition: TVPI combines DPI and RVPI to provide a comprehensive view of the fund's overall value relative to the total capital contributed by investors.
  • Significance: TVPI reflects the total value (realised and unrealised) of the fund's investments compared to the capital invested.

Public Market Equivalent (PME):

  • Definition: PME is a measure that compares the performance of a private equity fund against a public market index, accounting for the illiquidity and time value of money in private investments.
  • Significance: PME helps assess whether the fund outperforms or underperforms public market alternatives.

Investment Multiple by Vintage Year:

  • Definition: This metric examines the performance of investments based on the year in which they were made (vintage year), providing insights into the fund's historical performance over different investment periods.
  • Significance: Analysing performance by vintage year helps investors understand the fund's track record and adapt investment strategies.

These fund performance metrics collectively offer a comprehensive view of an investment fund's success, taking into account realised and unrealised returns, investment multiples, and the overall value generated for investors. Investors and fund managers use these metrics to make informed decisions about future investments, fundraising efforts, and portfolio management strategies.